~ません(か)

I've never been good about studying conjugations.

I mean, they're just so repetitive.

This is basically what we're doing:

Verb becomes Verbaba in past tense. OK, ready?

Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Verbaba. Kill me.


But studying Japanese won't always be like this. If you can just get through all of the basic conjugations, we can study things like "How to ask where the bathroom is," "How to offend people," "How to talk to friends," "How to make fun of friends," etc.

Until then, it's Verbaba city.

So, without further ado:

 

~ません

~ません is the negative ending of ~ます.

食べます(たべます // eat
食べませんたべません // not eat; don't eat; won't eat



飲みます(のみます // drink
飲みませんのみません // not drink; don't drink; won't drink



If you've been studying our recent lessons, this will be a breeze.

Specifically, you want to master our last two lessons covering ~ます before taking on ~ません.

Get you some.

 



Step #1: Learn how to conjugate verbs into ~ます form using the lessons I just mentioned.

Step #2: Change ~ます to ~ません.

That's it.

 

 List City 

1) Godan Verbs // Group I Verbs // u-verbs

Take the final kana, which ends in a 'u' sound, and change it so that it ends in an 'i' sound.

-ます Form: After we change the ending to an 'i" sound, we add -ます to the end of it.
-ません Form: After we change the ending to an 'i" sound, we add -ません to the end of it.

-う (-u) → -います (-imasu) → -いません (-imasen)
-く (-ku) → -きます (-kimasu) → -きません (-kimasen)
-ぐ (-gu) → -ぎます (-gimasu) → -ぎません (-gimasen)
-す (-su) → -します (-shimasu) → -しません (-shimasen)
-つ (-tsu) → -ちます (-chimasu) → -ちません (-chimasen)
-ぬ (-nu) → -にます (-nimasu) → -にません (-nimasen)
-ぶ (-bu) → -びます (-bimasu) → -びません (-bimasen)
-む (-mu) → -みます (-mimasu) → -みません (-mimasen)
-る (-ru) → -ります (-rimasu) → -りません (-rimasen)


And now let's look at (1) Dictionary Form, (2) -ます Form, and (3) -ません Form:

(Reminder: These are godan verbs.)

// kau // to buy
いますいます // kaimasu // buy
いませんいません // kaimasen // not buy



// iku // to go
きますきます // ikimasu // go
きませんきません // ikimasen // not go



// nugu // to take off [e.g. shoes]
ぎますぎます // nugimasu // take off [e.g. shoes]
ぎませんぎません // nugimasen // not take off [e.g. shoes]



// osu // to push; to press
しますします // oshimasu // push; press
しませんしません // oshimasen // not push; not press



// tatsu // to stand
ちますちます // tachimasu // stand
ちませんちません // tachimasen // not stand



// shinu // to die
にますにます // shinimasu // die
にませんにません // shinimasen // not die



あそ // asobu // to play
びますあそびます // asobimasu // play
びませんあそびません // asobimasen // not play



// nomu // to drink
みますみます // nomimasu // drink
みませんみません // nomimasen // not drink



すわ // suwaru // to sit down
りますすわります // suwarimasu // sit down
りませんすわりません // suwarimasen // not sit down



Next, let's look at ichidan verbs (↓).

 



2) Ichidan Verbs // Group II Verbs // ru-verbs

Drop -る (-ru) and add -ます (-masu) or -ません (-masen):

食べたべ // taberu // to eat
食べますたべます // tabemasu // eat
食べませんたべません // tabemasen // not eat



起きおき // okiru // to get up; to wake up
起きますおきます // okimasu// get up; wake up
起きませんおきません // okimasen// not get up; not wake up



Finally, the irregular verbs...

 



3) Irregular Verbs // Group III Verbs

する(suru // to do; to make
します(shimasu // do; make
しません(shimasen // not do; not make



来る(くる // kuru // to come
来ます(きます // kimasu // come
来ません(きません // kimasen // not come


 




 Level-Up City 

Enough lists! Let's learn something useful.

In the last lesson, we talked about how か is added to the end of questions when using ~ます.

We also use か after ~ません when forming negative questions, giving us ~ませんか.

Now, this is really useful because this is one way to (very politely) invite people to do things:

一緒に食べませんか?
いっしょに たべません か?
Would you like to eat together?
Literally: “together (=same/together + に) + won’t eat + か?”



Since it says 食べませんか, this could more literally be translated as, "Won't you eat together (with me)?" or something like that.

This isn't really something you would say to a friend or family member, but maybe to a coworker or a teacher or something, since it's quite formal.

I'd list more sentences where we do this, but that activity will be a lot more fun once we've gotten a few more grammatical patterns and vocabulary under our belt.

Something to look forward to...




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