778 - んがため(に)

JLPT N1: んがため(に)《in order to

We have already seen ため used in a number of N4 lessons:

- [NDL #351] - JLPT N4: ため(に)《because of》
- [NDL #393] - JLPT N4: ため(に)《in order to》
- [NDL #693] - JLPT N4: ため(に)《for》

Much like we saw in NDL #393, んがため is also used to say something like "in order to."

The difference here is that んがため is a stiff-sounding, formal written form. You wouldn't typically use it in everyday speech.

In a sentence with んがため, the person in question has some objective or goal that they are trying to achieve, and an action is being done in order to achieve it.

Here's our first example:


獣医になるという夢を叶えんがため、必死で勉強した。
じゅうい に なる という ゆめ を かなえんがため、 ひっし で べんきょう した。
In order to fulfill my dream of becoming a veterinarian, I studied intensively.
Literally: “veterinarian + に + become + という + dream + を + in order to fulfill, + intensive / frantic + で + studying + did.”


Make sense?

Let's see how to form sentences with んがため...


👷 Construction 👷

First, you take the plain present negative form of a verb, then you remove ないand add んがため

V ないんがため(に)


As indicated above, it is also possible to include after んがため. We've seen this happening for other uses of ため, as well. The meaning doesn't really change when doing this.

An example:


彼女は三人の子供になるべく良い教育を受けさせんがために、がむしゃらに働いている。
かのじょ は さんにん の こども に なるべく よい きょういく を うけさせんがために、 がむしゃら に はたらいている。
She is working a great deal in order to provide her three children with the best education possible.
Literally: “she + は + three people + の + children + に + as much as possible + good + education + を + in order to let them receive, + frantic / intensive + に + is working.”


する has an irregular conjugation when paired with んがため.

If it were to follow the usual construction, it would be something like:

んがため
(=ないんがため)

That sounds very strange, though. Instead, we say:

んがため


Here's an example:


警察は暴力団を 根絶せんがために、様々な努力をしている。
けいさつ は ぼうりょくだん を こんぜつ せんがために、 さまざまな どりょく を している。
The police are working in a variety of ways in order to eliminate gangs.
Literally: “police + は + gang / criminal organization + を + elimination / eradication + in order to do, + various + effort / endeavor / hard work + を + are doing.”


When a NOUN is coming directly after んがため (and being modified by んがため), we insert a の between the two.

Like this:

インターネット上では、広告収入をんがため嘘の記事が目立つ。
インターネット じょう で は、 こうこく しゅうにゅう を えんがための うそ の きじ が めだつ。
On the internet, false articles designed to get money from advertising stand out.
Literally: “internet + in the field of / on + では, + advertising + income / revenue + を + in order to get + の + lie / falsehood + の + article + が + stand out / be conspicuous.”


Finally, it's worth noting that we do not use んがため with requests, commands, encouragement, and so on.

For example, this sounds odd:


✕ 試験に合格せんがためにがんばってください。
✕ しけん に ごうかく せんがために がんばって ください。
✕ Please do your best to pass the exam.
✕ Literally: “test / examination + に + passing (a test) + in order to do + do your best / work hard (and) + please.”


It sounds odd because the phrase after んがため is urging the listener to do something: がんばってください.


Another lesson finished?!

You're a beast!