783 - はずだ ([naturally] should be)
JLPT N3: はずだ ([naturally] should be)
We already saw はずだ in a previous N4 lesson.
In that lesson, I wrote:
Use (N4) はずだ when you are confident that something is a certain way based on some kind of objective observation.
In other words, it is used when conclusions about things seem natural. It will typically be translated to things like "must" or "must have," "should," "surely," etc.
The usage of はずだ that we're examining in this lesson is very similar.
Not identical, but similar.
Use (N3) はずだ when stating that it is natural for a certain thing to be a certain way.
The main difference here is that はずだ, as we see it in this lesson, is not being used for conjecture. The speaker is not guessing how something is. Instead, the speaker is commenting that it is natural for things to be as they are.
さいきん、 ちょっと やせた みたい。
I think I’ve lost a bit of weight recently.
Literally: “recently / lately, + a little bit + lost weight / became thing + it seems.”
やせる はずだ よ。 まいにち にじかん も はしってる んだ から。
Of course you have. You go running for two hours every day.
Literally: “lose weight / become thing + はず + だ + よ. + every day + two hours + も + are running + んだ + because.”
👷 Construction 👷
This usage of はずだ is formed the same way as the usage of はずだ that we saw back in N4:
はずだ comes before a word in plain form:
Plain-Form Word ＋ はずだ
However, when the plain-form word before はずだ is a na-adjective, it must be followed by な：
na-adjective ＋ な ＋ はずだ
When the plain-form word before はずだ is a NOUN, it must be followed by の：
NOUN ＋ の ＋ はずだ
Technically both of these could also be followed by である, too.
All that's left for you to do now is to run through some examples...
なかた さん は ダンス が じょうず です ね。
Nakata-san is good at dancing, isn’t he?
Literally: “Nakata-san + は + dancing + が + skilled / good at + です + ね.”
ダンス の せんせい なんだ から、 じょうずな はずです よ。
He should be, seeing as how he’s a dance teacher.
Literally: “dance + の + teacher + なんだ + because, + skilled + はず + です + よ.”
あの ふたり は ほんとうに なかよし ね。
Those two are really close, aren’t they?
Literally: “that + two people + は + truly + intimate/close friends + ね.”
なかよし の はずです よ。 うまれる まえ から いっしょ なんです から。
Of course they're close. They’ve been together since before they were born.
Literally: “intimate/close friends + の + はず + です + よ. + be born + before + from + together + なんです + because.”
Note: Another translation of the first sentence could be "As they should be."
ああ、 もう なつやすみ か。 どうりで こども が おおい はずだ。
Ah, it's already summer vacation. No wonder there are so many kids.
Literally: “ah, + already + summer vacation + か. + it’s no wonder / it makes sense that + children + が + many + はず + だ.”
All done, yo.
Many props to you for getting through another lesson.