393 - ため（に）〈in order to〉
Rejoice, fellow student. This lesson is cake.
Well, the sentences might be a little tough. But the grammar we're looking at is relatively simple.
JLPT N4：ため（に）〈in order to)
First, note that there are multiple uses of ため (に), and we're not looking at all of them in this lesson.
The ため (に) we're looking at today means something along the lines of "in order to."
In English we say:
In order to do A, (I) did/do B.
In Japanese, they say that as:
Do A in order to, (I) did/do B.
Now let's replace "in order to" with ために：
Do A ために, did/do B.
Let's say that...
A = pass the test
B = I study every day
That would be...
In order to pass the test, I study every day.
→ Pass the test // in order to // I study every day.
→ → Pass the test ために, I study every day.
The verb for "to pass a test" is 合格する (ごうかくする).
We say: TEST + に + 合格する.
Since we're studying for the JLPT, let's say that we want to pass the JLPT.
How do we say JLPT in Japanese? Why, that's...
にほんご のうりょく しけん
The Japanese Language Proficiency Test (JLPT)
Literally: "Japanese (language) + ability + test."
Therefore, "to pass the JLPT" would be:
にほんご のうりょく しけん に ごうかく する
to pass the JLPT
Literally: "JLPT + に + passing + do."
Are you with me still?
Let's take a moment to pause. Take a few deep breaths.
I know that grammar can be a bit too exciting sometimes, so let's all just calm down for a second.
OK. Moving on...
にほんご のうりょく しけん に ごうかく する ために
in order to pass the JLPT
Literally: "JLPT + に + passing + do + ために."
Now we just need to add "I study every day."
For this particular sentence, we would actually say "I'm studying every day." So that would be:
まいにち べんきょう しています。
I'm studying every day.
Literally: "every day + studying + am doing."
Let's be a bit more specific. How do we say, "I'm studying 5 hours per day?" (Hint: We only need to add one word to that above sentence).
Well, that'd be:
まいにち ご じかん べんきょう しています。
I'm studying five hours per day.
Literally: "every day + five + hour (period) + studying + am doing."
Wait, maybe ５時間 (ごじかん) is two words... "five hours." Oops.
It's time to congratulate yourself.
Because if you went through everything that's written above, you can now form your first ために sentence:
にほんご のうりょく しけん に ごうかく する ために、 まいにち ご じかん べんきょう しています。
I'm studying five hours per day in order to pass the JLPT.
Literally: "Japanese language proficiency test + に + passing + do + ために, + every day + five + hour (period) + studying + am doing."
How to attach ために.
This is pretty simple, thankfully.
V る ＋ ため（に）
NOUN ＋ の ＋ ため（に）
The verbs we'll use in this lesson are する (to do) and なる (to become).
The noun we'll use is 申請 (しんせい // petition; application).
するために // in order to do
なるために // in order to become
申請のため // in order to apply
As you can see from this last example, the に in ために is sometimes dropped.
OK. Example time...
アナウンサー に なる ために、 せんもん がっこう に かよっています。
I'm studying at a technical school in order to become an announcer.
Literally: "announcer + に + become + ために, + technical school + に + am commuting."
かんこうビザ の しんせい の ため、 ベトナム たいしかん へ いきました。
I went to the Vietnamese embassy to apply for a tourist visa.
Literally: "tourist visa + の + application + の + ため, + Vietnam + embassy + へ + went."
Now, our bonus example might be a bit confusing:
かみのけ は なんの ために ある の だろう。
I wonder why we have hair.
Literally: "hair + は + what + の + ために + have + の + だろう."
Note that when 何 (なに // what) is followed by the particle の, it is pronounced なん.
Also, a quasi-literal translation might have been, "I wonder what the purpose of hair is," but I thought that sounded a bit strange.
Anyways, if the nuances of these sentences are too difficult, please don't stress too much. The important things to take away from this lesson are just that:
1) Sometimes ため (に) means "in order to."
2) It comes after verbs in dictionary form or "NOUN + の."
3) The English "In order to do A, did B" becomes "Do A ために did B" in Japanese.