796 - ~なくてはならない

JLPT N4: ~なくてはならない

This lesson will be a breeze... if you've already read these other lessons:
[NDL #794] - JLPT N4: ~なければならない
[NDL #795] - JLPT N4: ~なければいけない


The ~なくてはならない ending is used when saying that something "must" be done or be a certain way:

おすもうさんは、体がやわらかくなくてはならない
おすもうさん は、 からだ が やわらかくなくてはならない。
Sumo wrestlers need to be flexible [limber].
Literally: “お-sumo-san + は, + body + が + must be soft.”


It is also possible to say ~なくてはいけない (ending with いけない instead of ならない), which has the same meaning:

おすもうさんは、体がやわらかくなくてはいけない
おすもうさん は、 からだ が やわらかくなくてはいけない。
Sumo wrestlers need to be flexible [limber].
Literally: “お-sumo-san + は, + body + が + must be soft.”


The meaning of ~なくてはならない and ~なくてはいけない is pretty much the same as ~なければいけない, which we saw in our last lesson. It's also very similar to ~なければならない, except for the fact that ~なければならない is often used to describe things that "must" be done or be a certain way according to social conventions (as opposed to personal beliefs).

 



👷 Construction 👷

You will see ~なくてはならない being used with VERBS, i-adjectives, and na-adjectives and NOUNS in the following ways:

V なくてはならない
i-adjective くなくてはならない
na-adjective / NOUNなくてはならない


In lessons using ~なければ(ならない/いけない)we saw that ~なければ can morph into ~なきゃ, and the ならない/いけない ending can be dropped.

Something very similar happens with ~なくては(ならない/いけない)~なくては can morph into ~なくちゃ, and the ならない/いけない ending can be dropped.

You'll find that it is more common for people to just say things like ~なきゃ and ~なくちゃ in spoken language. After all, who has time for all of those other syllables?!

↑ We have examples of all of this stuff in this lesson.

With that, all that's left is for us to power through a handful of example sentences. Once we do so, we will have covered all of the "must" grammar points!

 

子供のおもちゃは安全でなくてはいけません
こども の おもちゃ は あんぜんでなくてはいけません。
Children’s toys need to be safe.
Literally: “children + の + toy + は + safe + must be.”

 



シニア大会に出場するには65才以上でなくてはなりません
シニア たいかい に しゅつじょう する には ろくじゅうごさい いじょうでなくてはなりません。
You must be at least 65 years old in order to compete in the seniors’ tournament.
Literally: “senior + tournament / mass meeting + に + appearance + do + に + は + 65 years old + at least + must be.”

 



 A:
明日、遊ばない?
あした あそばない?
Wanna hang out tomorrow? // Wanna do something tomorrow?
Literally: “tomorrow, + won’t play?”

 B:
ごめん、明日は家になくちゃいけないんだ。
ごめん、 あした は いえ に いなくちゃいけない んだ。
Sorry, but I have to stay home tomorrow.
Literally: “sorry, + tomorrow + は + house + に + must be.”

 



そろそろ終電の時間だ。帰らなくては
そろそろ しゅうでん の じかん だ。 かえらなくては。
My last train is soon. I need to go home.
Literally: “soon + last train + の + time + だ. + must return home.”

 



もっと勉強頑張らなくちゃ。もうすぐ受験なんだから。
もっと べんきょう がんばらなくちゃ。 もうすぐ じゅけん なんだ から。
You need to put more effort into your studies. Your exams are coming up soon.
Literally: “more + studying / studies + must try (your) best. + soon + taking an (entrance) examination + なんだ + から (=because).”
Note: The speaker could, for example, be a mother speaking to her son or daughter.

 



Finished!

You must read lessons multiple times if you really want grammar points to stick. ^_^



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