801 - ように(言う)

[NDL #801] - JLPT N4: ように(言う)

If you haven't read this lesson: [NDL #781] - JLPT N4: ようにする...

...then the lesson you're about to read probably won't make much sense.

Nothing like some pre-lesson review to get us started, yeah?

Anyway, having read the above lesson, you will know that ように can be used when saying that you are "trying to" do something or "being careful" to do something.


We can refer to the advice, requests, and so on that were given by people by taking this usage of ように and combining it with certain verbs.

Specifically, ように can often pair up with phrases like...

言う(いう // to say
書く(かく // to write
頼む(たのむ // to request
お願いする(おねがいする // to request; to ask a favor
注意する(ちゅういする // to warn; to caution


Examples are better than explanations:

先生は私たちに、気を付けて帰るように言いました
せんせい は わたしたち に、 きをつけて かえる ように いいました。
The teacher told us to be careful going home.
Literally: “sensei + は + we + に, + be careful (and) + return home + ように + said.”


We can also refer to what someone was told not to do:

わたしは娘に電気をつけっぱなしにしないように注意しました
わたし は むすめ に でんき を つけっぱなし に しない ように と ちゅうい しました。
I warned my daughter not to leaves the lights on.
Literally: “I + は + daughter + に + electricity / lights + を + leave on (e.g. lights, a TV, etc.) + に + don’t do + ように + と + warning / caution + did.”


↑ We've now seen both of our construction patterns:

V るように言う[書く, etc.]
V ないように言う[書く, etc.]


As shown in our second example sentence, sometimes you'll need to slip a in right after ように. This makes it sound like we are (somewhat) directly quoting the advice, request, etc. that was given.

To be honest, I think getting a feel for when sounds (un)natural to include or leave out is pretty difficult. Just take your time, get exposed to lots of Japanese, and you'll get a feel for this eventually.

 



A couple more examples:

パッケージに、冷蔵庫に保存するように書いてある
パッケージ に、 れいぞうこ に ほぞん する ように と かいてある。
The package says to keep it refrigerated.
Literally: “packaged + に, + refrigerator + に + preserving / saving + do + ように + と + is written.”


父は姉に、ごみを捨ててくるように頼みました
ちち は あね に、 ごみ を すてて くる ように たのみました。
My father asked my older sister to take out the trash.
Literally: “father + は + older sister + に, + trash + を + throw away (and) + come + ように + requested.”

 



Be careful when talking about the requests or advice that you gave to social superiors.

For example, you don't want to say something like this:

△ わたしは先生にもう一度説明するようにお願いしました
△ わたし は せんせい に もういちど せつめい する ように おねがい しました。
△ I asked the [my] teacher to explain it one more time.
△ Literally: “I + は + sensei + に + once more + explanation + do + ように + request / favor + did.”


This sounds a bit direct. It would be better to indicate that you respect your teacher. This can be done by putting the action requested of the teacher into honorable language:

〇 わたしは先生にもう一度説明してくださるようにお願いしました
〇 わたし は せんせい に もういちど せつめい して くださる ように おねがい しました。
〇 I asked the [my] teacher to explain it one more time.
〇 Literally: “I + は + sensei + に + once more + explanation + do (and) + (honorably) give (me) + ように + request / favor + did.”


Confused about why ~てくださる is the honorific form of ~てくれる

You might want to do some review: [NDL #406] - JLPT N5: くれる.

 



Sometimes the ように we're looking at in this lesson is also used when expressing a hope or wish that something will happen.

In these cases, you might see it pairing up with the verb 祈る (いのる // to pray):

神社で、あさって雨が降りませんように祈った
じんじゃ で、 あさって あめ が ふりません ように、 と いのった。
At the shrine, I prayed that it wouldn’t rain the day after tomorrow.
Literally: “shrine + で, + the day after tomorrow + rain + が + doesn’t fall + ように, + と + prayed.”


↑ Notice something different about that sentence? The verb before ように isn't in plain form. That's because putting the verb before ように into ます-form or ません-form is common when talking about a wish, hope, prayer, etc.

We'll see this in our next example, too.

Speaking of our next example, it's a good opportunity to point out that sometimes when referring to wish, hope, prayer, etc., we simply end the phrase at よう(に)

いつか、この世界から争いがなくなる日が来ますよう
いつか、 この せかい から あらそい が なくなる ひ が きます よう。
I wish that someday there will be no conflict in this world. // I pray that a day comes when the world will be free of conflict.
Literally: “someday, + this + world + from + conflict / quarrels + が + disappear + day + が + come + よう.”
Note: We could imagine the speaker wishing on a shooting star or making a silent prayer at a shrine, for example.

 



終わり!(おわり! // Finished!)

Props, fellow student.



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